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Reading Research References

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Research References -- Sound Reading Solutions

Sound Reading is based on the broadest research into reading, language and the brain. Sound Reading also is based on recent advances in the cognitive sciences on learning. The combination of scientifically-based instruction delivered using the most effective cognitive framework makes Sound Reading highly effective and efficient.

The best research-based methods often loose their effectiveness in the hands of classroom teachers. All Sound Reading materials have be thoroughly tested and refined to meet the needs of teachers.

We have divided the research into the following areas:

Assessment / RTI (Responsiveness to Intervention)
Scientific Studies of Reading / General and Neurological
Auditory Processing and Reading
Memory and Attention
Speech Processing and Reading
Phonemic awareness
Recoding, Phonics and Phonetic Analysis
Rapid Naming / Automaticity
Cognitive Learning Methodology

Assessment: / RTI (Responsiveness to Intervention)
Brown-Chidsey, R., & Steege, M. W. (2005). Response to intervention: Principles and strategies for effective practice. New York: The Guilford Press.
Buck, J., & Torgesen, J. (2002). The relationship between performance on a measure of oral reading fluency and performance on the Florida comprehensive assessment test. (Florida Center for Reading Research Technical Report No. 1). Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research.
Felton, R.H. (1992). Early identification of children at risk for reading disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 12, 212– 229.
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., & Speece, D. L. (2002). Treatment validity as a unifying construct for identifying learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 25, 2533-2545.
Gilbertson, M. and Bramlett, R. K.(1998) Phonological awareness screening to identify at-risk readers: Implications for practitioners. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 29, 109-116.
Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third- grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.
Good, R. H. & Kaminski, R. A. (2002). DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency Passages for First through Third Grades (Technical Report No. 10). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
Good, R. H., Simmons, D. S., Kame'enui, E. J., Kaminski, R. A., & Wallin, J. (2002). Summary of decision rules for intensive, strategic, and benchmark instructional recommendations in kindergarten through third grade (Technical Report No. 11). Eugene, OR: University of Oregon.
Gresham, F. (2002). Responsiveness to intervention: An alternative approach to the identification of learning disabilities. In R. Bradley, L. Danielson, & D. P. Hallahan (Eds.), Identification of learning disabilities: Research to practice. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
Howlett, B. (2002) Sound Reading Responsiveness Assessment. Ithaca, NY: Sound Reading Solutions, Inc.
Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C.A. (1999). Test of word reading efficiency. Austin, TX: PRO-ED Publishing, Inc.
Wagner, R. K., Torgesen, J. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (1999). Comprehensive test of phonological processes, Austin, TX: PRO-ED, Inc.
Yopp, H.K. (1995) A test for assessing phonemic awareness in young children, The Reading Teacher, (Vol. 49, No.1)

Scientific Studies of Reading / General and Neurological

Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
American Educator. Spring/Summer 1998. American Federation of Teachers.
Ellis, W. (1996) Interventions for Students with Learning Disabilities. National Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities.
Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology. (1996) Bryan Kolb and Ian Whishaw. W.H. Freeman.
Grossman, B. (1998) Thirty Years of Research: What We Now Know About How Children Learn to Read. National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators
Lyon, R. G. (1999, October 26). Education research: Is what we don't know hurting our children? Statement to the House Science Committee Subcommittee on Basic Research, U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved January 9, 2002, from the World Wide Web:
National Center for Education Statistics. (2004). The Nation's Report Card: 2004. Washington, DC: NCES.
National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Paulesu, J., and Firth, U. (2001) Dyslexia: Cultural Diversity and Biological Unity. Science, 291: 2165-2167
Perfetti, C.A. (1985). Reading ability. New York: Oxford University
Snow, C.E., Burns, M.S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Pinker, S. (2005). So how does the mind work? Mind and Language, 20, 1-24.
President’s Commission on Excellence in Special Education. (2002). A new era: Revitalizing special education for children and their families. Jessup, MD: U.S. Department of Education
Ramus, F., Rosen, S., Dakin, S. C., Day, B. L., Castellote, J. M., White, S., & Frith, U. (2003). Theories of developmental dyslexia: insights from a multiple case study of dyslexic adults. Brain, 126, 841-865.
Reading Recovery. (1993). Marie M.Clay. Heinemann.
Reading Reflex. (1998). Carmen and Geoffrey McGuinness. Free Press
Recipe For Reading. (1995). Nina Traub, with Francis Bloom. Educators Publishing.
Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching Children to Read, (2000) Langenberg, D. Chair National Institute of Health. An evidence- based assessment of the scientific literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
Shaywitz, S. Dyslexia. Scientific American. November, 1996.
Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Constable, R. T., Mencl, W.E., Shankweiler, D.P., Liberman, A. M., Skudlarski, P., Fletcher, J. M., Katz, L., Marchione, K. E., Lacadie, C., Gatenby, C., & Gore, J. C. (1998). Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95, 2636 - 2641.
Simmons, D. C., Kuykendall, K., King, K., Cornachione, C., & Kameenui, E. J., (2000). Implementation of a schoolwide reading improvement model: "No one ever told us it would be this hard!" Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15, 92-100.
Stanovich, K. Romance and Reality. The Reading Teacher, Dec. 1993/Jan.1994 (Vol. 47, No.4)
Strictland, D.S. (1998) What’s Best in Beginning Reading Educational Leadership March, 1998
Teaching Our Children to Read. (1996) Bill Honig. Corwin Press
Torgesen, J., Alexander, A., Wagner, R. , Rashotte, C. Voeller, K. and Conway, T. Intensive Remedial instruction for children with reading disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 32-58.
Torgesen, J. K. (1999). Phonologically based reading disabilities: Toward a coherent theory of one kind of learning disability. In R.J.
Sternberg & L. Spear-Swerling (Eds.). Perspectives on learning disabilities (pp. 231-262). New Haven: Westview Press.
Torgesen, J. K. (2002). Lessons learned from intervention research in reading: A way to go before we rest. In R. Stainthorpe (Ed.), Literacy: Learning and teaching reading (pp. 89-104). Monograph of the British Journal of Educational Psychology.
Torgesen, J. K., Rashotte, C. A., Alexander, A., Alexander, J., & MacPhee, K. (2003). Progress towards understanding the instructional conditions necessary for remediating reading difficulties in older children. In B. Foorman (Ed.). Preventing and remediating reading difficulties: Bringing science to scale (pp. 275-298). Parkton, MD: York Press.
Torgesen, J.K. (2000). Individual differences in response to early interventions in reading: The lingering problem of treatment resisters. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 15(1), 55-64.
Torgesen, J.K., Alexander, A. W., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C. A., Voeller, K., Conway, T., & Rose, E. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with severe reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34, 33-58.
Why Our Children Can’t Read and What We Can Do About It. (1997). Diane McGuinness. Free Press

Auditory Processing and Reading:
Diehl, S. (1999) Listen and Learn? A software review of Earobics, Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. 30, 108-116
Galabuda, A. M., Menard, M. T., & Rosen, G. D. (1994). Evidence for aberrant auditory anatomy in developmental dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 8010–8013.
Hagman, J. F., Wood, M., Buchsbaum, L., Flowers, W., Katz, P., & Tallal, P. (1992). Cerebral brain metabolism in adult dyslexics assessed with positron emission tomography during performance of an auditory task, Archives of Neurology, 49, 734-739.
Merzenich, M., Jenkins, W., Johnston, P. S., Schreiner, C., Miller, S. L., & Tallal, P. (1996). Temporal processing deficits of language- learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science, 271, 77-81.
Sperling, A. J., Zhong-Lin, L., Manis, F. R., & Seidenberg, M. S. (2005). Deficits in perceptual noise exclusion in developmental dyslexia. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 862-863.

Memory and Attention:
Altmaier, E. M., Johnson, B. D., & Richman, L. C. (1999). Attention deficits and reading disabilities: Are immediate memory defects additive? Developmental Neuropsychology, 15, 213-226.
Das, J.P., Mok, M., & Mishra, R.K. (1994). The role of speech processes and memory in reading disability. Journal of General Psychology, 121, 131-146.
Gathercole, S., & Baddeley, A. (1993). Working memory and language. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hansen, J., & Bowey, J. A., (1994). Phonological analysis skills, verbal working memory, and reading ability in second-grade children. Child Development, 65, 938-950.
McDougall, S., Hulme, C., Ellis, A., & Monk, A. (1994). Learning to read: The role of short-term memory and phonological skills. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 112-133.

Speech Processing and Reading:
Apel, K. and Swank, L. (1999) Second chances: Improving decoding skills in the older student. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools. 30, 231-242.
Catts H. W., Gillispie, M., Leonard, L. B., Kail, R. V., & Miller, C. A. (2002). The role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 510-525.
Catts, H. W., Fey, M. E., Zhang, X., & Tomblin, J. B. (1999). Language basis of reading and reading disabilities: Evidence from a longitudinal investigation. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 331-361.
Damasio, A and Damasio, H. Brain and Language. Scientific American, September
Gonzalez, M. R. O., Espinel, A. I. G., & Rosquete, R. G. (2002). Remedial interventions for children with reading disabilities: Speech perception – an effective component in phonological training. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 354, 334-342.
Hickok, G., Bellugi, U. and Klima, E. (2001) Sign Language in the Brain. Scientific American June 2001.
Inside the Brain.(1997) Ronald Kotulak. Andrews McMeel
Leonard, C. M. (2001). Imaging brain structure in children: Differentiating language disability and reading disability. Learning Disability Quarterly, 24, 158-176.
Ortiz, M.R., Garcia Espinel, A.I. & Guzman Rosquete, R. (2002). Remedial Interventions for Children with Reading Disabilities: Speech Perception – an effective component in Phonological Training. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 354, 334-342.
The Language Instinct. (1995) Steven Pinker. Harper

Phonemic Awareness:
Elbro, C., Borstrom, D.K. and Petersen. Predicting dyslexia from kindergarten: The importance of distinctness of phonological representations of lexical items. Reading Research Quarterly. Vol. 33. No.1
Griffith, P. and Olson, M. (1992) Phonemic awareness helps beginning readers break the code. The Reading Teacher. (Vol. 45, No.7) K. Nation and C. Hulme. Phonemic segmentation, not onset-rime segmentation, predicts early reading and spelling skills. Reading Research Quarterly. Vol. 32. No.2
Lovett, M.W., Borden, S.L., DeLuca, T. Lacerenza, L., Benson, N.J., & Blackstone, D. (1994). Treating the core deficits of developmental dyslexia: Evidence of transfer of learning after phonological and strategy-based reading training programs. Developmental Psychology, 30, 805-822.
Manis, F.R., Custodio, R., & Szeszulski, P.A. (1993). Development of phonological and orthographic skill: A 2-year longitudinal study of dyslexic children, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 56, 64-86
Opitz, M. (1998) Children’s books to develop phonemic awareness -- for you and parents, too! The Reading Teacher, March, 1998 (Vol. 51, No.6)
Phonemic Awareness Activities for Early Reading Success. (1997). Wiley Blevins. Scholastics, Inc.
Phonemic Awareness in Young Children. (1998). M.J. Adams. B.R. Foorman, I. Lundberg and T. Beeler. Paul H. Brooks Publishing Smith, S.B., Simmons, D.C. and Kameenui, E.J. (1999) Phonological awareness: Curricular and Instructional Implication for Diverse Learners. National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators
Snider, V. (1995) A Primer on Phonemic Awareness: What it is, why it’s important and how to teach it. School Psychology Review, (Vol. 24, No.3)
The Lindamood Phoneme Sequencing Program. (1998) Patricia Lindamood and Phyllis Lindamood. Pro-Ed
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C.A., Rose, E., Lindamood, P., Conway, T., & Garvin, C. (1999). Preventing reading failure in young children with phonological processing disabilities: Group and individual responses to instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 579-593.
Torgesen, J.K. (1999). Phonologically based reading disabilities: Toward a coherent theory of one kind of learning disability. In R.J. Sternberg & L. Spear-Swerling (Eds.), Perspectives on Learning Disabilities. New Haven: Westview Press.
Wagner, R., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 192-212.
Yopp, H.K. (1995) Read Aloud books for developing phonemic awareness: an annotated bibliography. The Reading Teacher, (Vol. 48, No.6)

Recoding / Phonetic Analysis:
Applied Phonetics, Harold T. Edwards. Singular Publishing.
Bear, D. and Templeton, S. (1998) Explorations in developmental spelling: Foundations for learning and teaching phonics, spelling and vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, Nov. 1998 (Vol. 52, No.3)
Fletcher-Flinn, C. M., Shankweiler, D., & Frost, S. J. (2004). Coordination of reading and spelling in early literacy: An examination of the discrepancy hypothesis. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 617-644.
Lovett, M. Lacerenza, L. and Borden, S. (2000) Putting Struggling Readers on the PHAST Track. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 458- 476
Manis, F. R., Lindsey, K. A., & Bailey, C. E. (2004). Development of reading in grades k–2 in Spanish-Speaking English-Language learners. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 19, 214-224
McCandliss, B., Beck, I. L., Sandak, R., & Perfetti, C. (2003). Focusing attention on decoding for children with poor reading skills: Design and preliminary tests of the word building intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7, 75-104.
Phonetic Science. (1973) Samuel and Marjorie Faircloth. Prentice-Hall
Spelling Sourcebook series. (1997) Rebecca Sitton. Egger Publishing.
Stahl, S. (1992) Saying the ‘p’ word: Nine guidelines for exemplary phonics instruction. The Reading Teacher, (Vol. 45, No. 8) Swank, L. K., & Catts, H. W. (1994). Phonological awareness and written word decoding. Language, Speech and Hearing Services in the Schools, 25, 9-14
Thompson, G. B., & Fletcher-Flinn, C. M. (2005). Lexicalised implicit learning in reading acquisition: Knowledge sources theory. In Cognition and learning: Perspectives from New Zealand. Bowen Hills, QLD: Australian Academic Press.
Share, D. L., & Leikin, M. (2004). Language impairment at school entry and later reading disability: Connections at lexical versus supralexical levels of reading. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8, 87-110.

Rapid Naming / Automaticity:
Bowers, P. G., & Wolf, M. (1993). Theoretical links between naming speed, precise timing mechanisms and orthographic skill in dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 69-85.
Catts H. W., Gillispie, M., Leonard, L. B., Kail, R. V., & Miller, C. A. (2002). The role of speed of processing, rapid naming, and phonological awareness in reading achievement. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 510-525.
DeJong, P. E., & Vrielink, L.O. (2004). Rapid naming: Easy to measure, hard to improve (quickly). Annals of Dyslexia, 54, 65-88. Fawcett, A. J. and Niclson, R. (1994) Naming speed in children with dyslexia. Journal of Learning disabilities 27, 641-646.
Kobayashi, M. A., Hayes, C. W., Macaruso, P., Hook, P. E., & Kato, J. (2005). Effects of mora deletion, nonword repetition, rapid naming, and visual search performance on beginning reading in Japanese. Annals of Dyslexia, 55, 105-128.
Meyer, M., Wood, F. B., Hart, L. A., & Felton, R. (1998). Longitudinal course of rapid naming in disabled and nondisabled readers. Annals of Dyslexia, 48, 91-114.
Torgesen, J.K., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C.A., Burgess, S., & Hecht, S. (1997). Contributions of phonological awareness and rapid automatic naming ability to the growth of word-reading skills in second- to fifth-grade children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 1, 161-185.
Wolf, M. (1991) Naming speed and reading: The contribution of the cognitive neurosciences. Reading Research Quarterly 25, 123- 139.
Wolf, M., & Bowers, P. G. (1999). The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 415-438
Wolf, M., Miller, L. and Donnelly, K. Retrieval, automaticity, vocabulary, elaboration, orthography (RAVE-O) A comprehensive, fluency- based reading intervention program. (2000) Journal of Learning disabilities 33, 375-386.

Kame'enui, E.J., & Simmons, D.C. (2001). Introduction to special issue: The DNA of reading fluency. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 203- 210.
Pikulski, J. P., & Chard, D. J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58, 510-519 Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L.S. (2005). "Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies: Promoting word recognition, fluency, and comprehension in young children." Journal of Special Education, 39, 34-44.
Fuchs, L.S., Fuchs, D. & Compton, D.L. (2005). Monitoring early reading development in first grade: Word identification fluency versus nonsense word fluency. Exceptional Children.

Cognitive Learning Methodology:
Addeley, A., & Wilson, B. A. (1994). When implicit learning fails - the problem of error elimination. Neuropsychologia, 32, 53-68. Hunkin, N. M., Squires, E. J., Parkin, A. J., & Tidy, J. A., (1998). Are the benefits of errorless learning dependent on implicit memory? Neuropsychologia, 36, 25-36.
Burns, K. (2004). Empirical analysis of drill ratio research: Refining the instructional level for drill tasks. Remedial and Special Education, 25, 167-173.
Kessels, R. P., & De Haan, E. H. (2003). Implicit learning in memory rehabilitation: A meta-analysis on errorless learning and vanishing cues methods. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 805-814.
Laing, S. P. (2002). Miscue analysis in school-aged children. American Journal of Speech and Language Pathology, 11, 407-416. Lansdale, M. (1996). An analysis of errors in the learning, overlearning, and forgetting of sequences. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49, 341-356.
Parkin, A. J., Hunkin, N. M., & Squires, E. J. (1998). Unlearning John Major; The use of errorless learning in the reacquisition of proper names following herpes simplex encephalitis. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 15, 361-375.
Robinson, C.S., Menchetti, B.M. & Torgesen, J.K. (2002) Towards a Two-Factor Theory of One Type of Mathematics Disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 17(2), 81-89.
Shankweiler, D., Lundquist, E., Katz, L., & Stuebing, J. M. (1999). Comprehension and decoding: Patterns of association in children with reading difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3, 95-112.
Share, D. L. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition, 55, 151-218.
Share, D. L. (1999). Phonological recoding and orthographic learning: A direct test of the self-teaching hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 72 (2), 95-129.
Willingham, D. T. (2002). Allocating student study time: Massed vs. distributed practice. American Educator, 47, 37-39.
Willingham, D.T. (2004). Practice makes perfect–but only if you practice beyond the point of perfection. American Educator, 28, 31-33.
Willingham, D. B. (2001). Cognition: The thinking animal. New York: Prentice Hall. 2nd edition (2004). 3rd edition (2007).
Spellman, B. & Willingham, D. T. (Eds.) (2004). Current Directions in Cognitive Science. New York: Prentice Hall.
Willingham, D. T. (2009). Why Don’t Students Like School? San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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